UM E-Theses Collection (澳門大學電子學位論文庫)
Title
基於語料庫的漢語 "給" 和英語 "give" 之對比研究 = A corpus-based contrastive study on Chinese "gei" and English "give"
English Abstract
Being two of the most representative languages in the world, Chinese and English belong to different language family. The contrastive study on them has great theoretical significance and application value. This thesis focuses on the contrastive study upon Chinese “gei” and English “give”, aiming to find out the similarities and differences of “gei” and “give”, which can help us master the specific properties of them better and use them more accurately. The thesis takes full advantage of many corpuses, including CCL Corpus, Parallel Corpus of A Dream of Red Mansions, Corpus of Contemporary American English(COCA) and Corpus of Historical American English(COHA), and uses comparison method to find out the similarities and differences of “gei” and “give” not only from synchronic plane but also from diachronic plane. Studies show that while “gei” and “give” have much in common, they still have many differences. Firstly, the word classes of “gei” and “give” are not the same. Secondly, the meanings and functions of “gei” and “give” are different. Thirdly, the given thing cannot be represented by a pronoun in the double-object construction in most cases. In addition, the grammaticalizations of “gei” and “give” also have some differences, especially in the degree of the grammaticalization. This thesis can be divided into five parts. Chapter one is a general introduction about the research objectives, methods, rationales and so on. Chapter two focuses on the meanings, functions and usages of “gei” in modern Chinese and “give” in modern English, then makes a contrastive study on them. In chapter three, the processes of their grammaticalization and the contrastive study of these two verbs will be analyzed clearly. Chapter four centers upon the enlightenments of this study, especially for the Chinese-English (or English-Chinese) translation and language teaching. Chapter five is a conclusion and some difficult issues to be further discussed.
Chinese Abstract
漢語和英語作為世界語言中最具代表性的兩種語言,分屬不同的語系,其對 比研究具有不容忽視的理論意義和應用價值。本文選取漢語“給”和英語 “give”作為研究對象,對比分析兩者的共性與個性,探討其背後深層次的語言 問題,有利於我們更好地掌握和運用兩種語言。漢語的“給”和英語的“give” 具有十分近似的基本語義(給予義)且均可後接雙賓語結構,在各自語言發展過 程中都經歷了語法化的階段。正是這些共同點讓我們擁有了對“給”和“give” 進行對比研究的興趣和基礎。 本文充分利用語料庫資源(北京大學 CCL 語料庫、紅樓夢漢英平行語料庫、 美國當代英語語料庫、美國歷史英語語料庫),收集、整理、分析語料,採用對 比和比較的方法,從共時層面和歷時層面研究和探討“給”和“give”的異同。 研究表明,雖然“給”和“give”存在一些共性,但二者仍有諸多不同之處。首 先,“給”和“give”的詞性不對等。現代漢語中的“給”有動詞、介詞、助詞 三種詞性,部分古代遺留下來的成語、俗語中還保留了“給”在古代漢語中的詞 類和特徵;現代英語中的“give”只有動詞和名詞兩種詞性。其次,“給”和 “give”的意義、功能存在較大的差異,這主要是受詞性不對等的影響。再者, “給”和“give”在雙賓語結構中時,被給予物一般不能用代詞表達。第四, “給”和“give”的語法化有所差異,這直接反映在二者意義和詞性的多寡上。 “給”在語法化過程中獲得了作為使役標記、施益標記、處置標記、被動標記、 加強語勢標記的語法功能,詞性歷經了動詞、介詞、助詞的改變和發展。“give” 則在語法化過程中僅僅發生了字面意義的淡化,象徵意義的增強,它作為動詞的 詞性未發生任何改變,其語法化程度明顯低於“給”。這背後的主要原因在於漢 語和英語兩種語言句法結構的差異,漢語的句法結構為語法化的順利進行提供了 更大的發展空間。 全文正文共分為五章。第一章是緒論,主要介紹了本文的研究緣起和研究目 的、研究範圍和研究方法、前人研究綜述和涉及到本文研究的相關理論。第二章 是主要介紹了現代漢語中的“給”和現代英語中的“give”的主要意義、功能和 用法,對比分析了二者的異同。第三章是全文的重難點,分別探討了“給”和 “give”的語法化過程及其背後的動因,對比分析了兩者語法化的相同點和不同 點。第四章是總結了對比研究“給”和“give”給我們帶來的啟示,尤其是在英 漢翻譯和語言教學方面提供的參考價值。第五章是結論部份,對全文的研究進行 了總結,同時指出了研究遺留的疑難問題。 關鍵詞 語料庫 漢語“給” 英語“give” 對比研究 語法化
Issue Date
2012
Author
雷曦
Faculty
Faculty of Social Sciences and Humanities
Department:
Department of Chinese
Degree
M.A.
Subject
Chinese Studies (Linguistics Studies) -- Department of Chinese
中文語言學 -- 中文系
Chinese language -- Semantics
漢語 -- 語義學
English language -- Semantics
英語 -- 語義學
Supervisor
徐傑
Files In This Item:
TOC & Abstract
Full-text
Location
1/F Zone C
Supervisor
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