UM E-Theses Collection (澳門大學電子學位論文庫)
Title
以批判理論視角看中國大陸師範院校的發展與角色
English Abstract
The higher education’s reform is making an inexorable march of progress after the carrying out of the policies of reform and opening-up in China. Especially the university amalgamation and reform strategies over the last 20 or 30 years, which arouses institutions’ stream of upgrade, has been leading the colleges and universities in China to a “comprehensive research university” shift. This research focuses on the development and roles’ change of the normal universities in mainland China. The comparison on their locations, orientations and training missions between before-1990’s and after-1990’s normal universities is detailed; at the same time factors that determine the normal universities’ predilections during their transitions are also explored according to the essence of the educational policies; the contradictions between this phenomenon and the policies are identified with further discussion. The results of this research show that the transition from specialized universities to comprehensive universities is taking place among normal universities in mainland China by means of university amalgamation and offering new courses, while these approaches are leading to a change of the allocation of educational resources and the layout of the whole discipline systems of teacher education in mainland China: the location shifts widened the gap of educational resources allocation between the backward areas and the advanced regions, which intensified the problem of unequal access to education; with normal universities’ orientations getting vague and gradually replaced by the ones of “comprehensive”(formally) universities, their training missions are likely to be stated to conform to the requirements of the development of advanced productive forces. As for the factors leading to this predilection of transition, educational policies could be the main issues, which are showed to be contradicting their goals. It is the essential conflicts among those policies that terminated this educational reform in disorder ultimately. Suggestions are offered according to the conclusions of this research as follows: For the messy situation of Chinese normal universities’ development and roles: 1. It’s necessary to focus more on the teacher education of those backward areas with practical actions. 2. Higher institutions’ roles and orientations should be specialized according to the conditions and quality of themselves. For the contradictions among educational policies: 1. Higher institutions at different levels with different roles’ type should be evaluated according to different evaluation systems. 2. Government should take financial responsibility of educational institutions based on the principle of fairness to different disciplines.
Chinese Abstract
中國改革開放之後,中國大陸的高等教育界亦展開了聲勢浩大的改革活動。 尤其是近二三十年間,關於高校改制重組的決策方針不斷推行,致使中國大陸高 校的格局發生了一些變動,各類高校紛紛「升格」的同時,在學科設置方面都越 來越接近「綜合研究型」大學。本文主要針對師範院校在這場改革活動中所產生 的變化進行分析,探討經過這樣的重組之後,中國大陸的師範院校在發展與角色 定位方面產生了如何的變化。以中國大陸所有師範大學進行的改革作為師範院校 轉型的典範,一方面根據「地理分佈」、「學校定位」和「培養目標」三個層面將 師範大學過去和現在的情況作出對比,另一方面也對 1990 年之後中國大陸出臺的 相關教育政策進行了分析,以探求造成師範大學轉型和如此轉型取向的誘因,並 進一步針對這場以「綜合研究」型大學作為目標指針的改革機制之背後的本質矛 盾進行了討論和總結。 研究結果顯示,中國大陸的師範院校正在進行從過去以「師範」建設為重心 的單一型院校到現在學科佈局紛繁複雜的綜合型院校的過渡。在「地理分佈」、「學 校定位」和「培養目標」三個層面上現今的師範院校較 1990 年之前都發生了很大 改變:從分佈上看來,中國大陸發達地區與落後地區在師範院校的教育資源配置 方面反而更加懸殊,反映出教育機會公平並未得到保證;而學校定位與培養目標 方面,師範院校在某種程度上越來越接近於形式上的「綜合」大學,其本身的「師 範」特色正被弱化,受「科學技術」意識形態所導,直接有助於社經發展而與「師 範」關聯不大的學科卻受到了相當的重視。這樣的改革取向主要受政策條款誘導, 但同時卻也與政策預訂的目標相違背;正是教育政策中這樣矛盾和衝突的實質造 成了師範院校在發展和角色上的錯亂。 根據研究結果,本文最後提出如下建議: 首先,針對師範院校發展與角色上的混亂局面,建議: 1、加強落後地區師範教育建設,跟進教育機會公平的實現; 2、確保師範院校在改革的過程中,避免辦學類型和層次繼續地「統一化」; 應有明確的符合自身發展的角色和定位。 最後,針對教育政策中的矛盾衝突,建議: 1、中國大陸高等院校的評價體系應根據不同層次和類型高校自身不同的特點 而分開分別建立; 2、增加各類學科建設的經費投入;重視人文學科建設,免除經費撥放中的「科 系差異」。
Issue Date
2011
Author
莫無
Faculty
Faculty of Education
Degree
M.Ed.
Subject
Educational Administration -- Faculty of Education
教育行政 -- 教育學院
University autonomy -- China
大學自治 -- 中國
Universities and colleges -- Administration
大專院校 -- 行政
Supervisor
吳梅君
Files In This Item:
TOC & Abstract
Full-text
Location
1/F Zone C
Supervisor
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