UM E-Theses Collection (澳門大學電子學位論文庫)
Title
伊比利亞的遠東雙城 :澳門與馬尼拉交通, 貿易之興衰及影響 (1582-1642)
English Abstract
The Macao-Japan trade, Sangleys’ trade in Manila, and the Chinese trade in Japan in the 16th and 17th Centuries have already draw great attention of scholars, but there are few studies on the trade, religious and political relations between Macao and Manila. As two Iberian cities in the Far East, their development is not only connected with the European political situation, but also interweaves with the situation of China and Japan. The Union of Portugal and Spain in 1580s offers an opportunity for the two cities, which had been enemy in the Far East for the Patronato Real issue. During the early twenty even thirty years, quantity of ships arrive at Manila and the duties paid by the Macao ships are insignificant compared with the trade between Macao and Japan. Nonetheless, appearance of Dutch ships in the Far East and the attack and blockade against Macao and Manila impel the two harbors to help each other. And the edicts of 1608 from the king allow the ammunition trade between them for one ship each year. In the following decade, the quantity of ships from Macao increase significantly, and after 1619 duties paid by Portuguese merchants is even higher than the ones paid by the Sangleys. In this case, the Portuguese merchants’ increasing influences in Manila cause Spanish officers’ anxieties. They think this influence as a threat to their trade with Sangleys from Fujian, and call it as “Monopoly”. Spanish officers in Manila keep complaining this issue to the King, and win the prohibition edicts in 1630s. However even though the edicts are given several times to the East and West Indias, trade between Macao and Manila continues as it always did, and occupy more than half of the Manila market from 1641 to 1642. However, in 1642 the information of Portugal’s restoration arrives in the Far East, Portuguese in Macao choose to owe allegiance to João IV and give up the trade and communication with the Spanish from Manila. During the sixty vi years, more than ten millions peso is transported from the New World to China through Macao-Manila route. It definitely influences the development of commerce in China and Macao. In the sports game of Portugal, Spain and Dutch in the Far East, there are conflicts between Macao and Manila, but sometime they may cooperate to resist the Dutch, and also Portuguese merchants are competing with the Sangleys in Manila market. All these facts present the symbiotic and rival relationships between the European nations in China Sea during the early time of Globalization.
Chinese Abstract
以往對十六、十七世紀遠東海貿的研究主要集中在澳門—日本航線、福 建—馬尼拉航線,以及華商與日本的私貿等方面,澳門、馬尼拉兩港之間的經 貿、政治和宗教關係反而較少得到關注。作為伊比利亞人在遠東的兩個港口, 它們的發展一方面與歐洲的政局、東西印度的局勢相連,另一方面又與東方的 中國、日本產生了錯綜複雜的關係。從而,對此進行一番考察有利於理解該時 期歐洲人在東方的貿易活動,西葡內部、以及他們與華人、日本人和荷蘭人的 利益博弈,這也正面反映了早期全球化中東西方相遇的諸多細節。本研究主要 由緒論、結語和中間五章組成,以澳、馬兩港貿易開闢、發展、鼎盛到中止為 主線索展開。第二章研究時段為西葡合併之前,著意勾勒兩港貿易展開的歐洲 和遠東歷史大背景。在此階段,中國與東南亞、日本貿易往來的中斷為葡人充 當中介人提供了良機,澳日貿易由此興盛,中菲貿易在馬尼拉建城後也得已發 展。16 世紀 80 年代,西、葡兩國合併,這場歐洲變局為澳、馬兩港的經貿開 展帶來了契機。可是,澳、馬對外的貿易仍然以日本、福建為主。伴隨澳日貿 易中政治、宗教隱患的突顯,荷蘭人對伊比利亞人壟斷權力的挑戰,加之 1608 年國王放寬兩地貿易的法令,諸多因素加速了兩港的交通和貿易的發展,兩地 來往船隻數量、貿易額較上世紀有了明顯提升。1619 年後,兩港貿易往來得到 進一步發展,葡人提供的華貨緩解了因荷蘭人封鎖馬尼拉港口所導致的貨源不 足的問題。與此同時,1619-1632 年葡商在馬尼拉的勢力極大提升,引來馬尼 拉官方的嚴重不滿,稱其壟斷馬尼拉華貨供給。馬尼拉當局上書國王,請求重 新嚴禁兩地貿易。可是,即便禁令再次下達東、西印度,澳馬貿易一如既往地 進行,並且在 1641-1642 年,澳門的供貨佔據馬尼拉大半市場。兩港貿易正趨 iv 鼎盛之時,葡國復辟的消息從歐洲傳來,澳門葡人最後選擇了效忠若昂四世, 放棄與馬尼拉的貿易,兩港貿易戛然而止。六十年澳馬貿易,在航線上的白銀 流動量高達上千萬比索,僅次於中菲、澳日航線上的流動額,它們一同影響了 澳馬兩城、明末中國乃至歐洲的商業發展。在多方的博弈中,葡、西兩國時而 衝突,時而為抵禦荷蘭人而聯合,在馬尼拉城葡商還與華商競相角逐,這些史 實向我們展現了早期全球化貿易中多方勢力的共生和競爭關係。
Issue Date
2015
Author
李慶,
Faculty
Faculty of Social Sciences
Department:
Department of History
Degree
Ph.D.
Subject
Transportation -- Macau -- History
運輸 公共運輸 運輸業 交通工具 -- 澳門 -- 歷史
Transportation -- Manila -- History
運輸 公共運輸 運輸業 交通工具 -- 馬尼拉 -- 歷史
Macau -- Foreign economic relations -- Manila -- History -- 16 century
澳門 -- 對外經濟關係 -- 馬尼拉 -- 歷史 -- 16 世紀
Supervisor
湯開建
Library URL
b3506828
Files In This Item:
Full-text (Intranet only)
Location
1/F Zone C
Supervisor
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