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西漢呂后研究 = A study on the empress dowager Lu in Former Han dynasty

English Abstract

The empress dowager Lü was the first woman who held the powers of an emperor in Chinese history, she was a role model followed by other empresses in different dynasties. Her domination had a profound influence on later generations. Empress Lü 's story was mainly recorded in the historical books of Shi Ji and Han Shu. Only Empress Lü was written to the specific literary form in these two books, it shows/indicated that she had a very high historical status. By reading these two books, we know that empress Lü is an excellent female politician. During the rule of Lü, the society was at peace, the punishments were seldom executed, and the evildoers seldom appeared, while the people devoted to do farming, hence the food and clothing became abundant. Throughout the whole life of empress Lü, she turned herself from an ordinary peasant woman into an empress, and then she began to hold the power of the empress, and participated in political affairs actively. When she killed the different surnames’ feudatory kings, it showed that she was so brave and determined. Through her action to make sure that her son was the heir of the throne, it showed that she loved her son and she had some excellent political maneuvers. When she murdered the Qi Ji and then mutilated her in a peculiarly revolting way, and killed the Liu Bang’s descendants, it showed that she was so oppressive and cruel. During her reign, in a game of empress Lü and the ministers, it showed that she had political wisdom. Under her domination, the development of agriculture and business, as well as the foreign relations had been improved, all of these fully indicated that she had political talent. As for the empress Lü , what she did was controversial, a lot of negative comments about her which from later generations, and I disagree some of the negative comments . Therefore this thesis is based on the Shi Ji and Han Shu, and learning from the previous research results, and focusing on relevant historical 8 events, and analyzing the contradictions between her and others. Finally ,the thesis is Combining the different famous scholars’ evaluations toward the empress Lü to make a comprehensive and relatively reasonable evaluation of Lü , and it also aims to make the later generations have a deeper understanding of Lü .

Chinese Abstract

呂后是中國歷史上第一位臨朝稱制的女性,她開啟了女性臨朝稱制的先河,且對後世產 生了深遠的影響。 呂后的故事主要記載於《史記》和《漢書》中。在二書中只有呂后一位女性獨立為紀, 由此可見她具有極高的歷史地位。通過閱讀二書,我們可以看到呂后是一位非常出色的女政 治家。在她主政期間,社會安定,刑罰少用,罪人少見,百姓專心從事農耕,衣食富足。 縱觀呂后的一生,她從一位普通的農婦華麗變身成為一個皇后,之後便開始行使皇后的 權力,積極參與政事。在誅殺異姓王時,顯示出了她的果敢決斷。在保衛兒子的太子之位 時,顯示出了她對惠帝的愛以及她高超的政治手腕。在殘彘戚夫人和誅殺劉氏子孫的時候, 顯示出了她的暴虐和殘酷。在臨朝稱制後,她與大臣之間的博弈,展現了她的政治智慧。在 她的治理之下,農業和商業,以及對外關係都取得了一定的發展,這充分表現了她的政治才 能。 對於呂后這樣的一位女性,她的所作所為飽受爭議,後人對她的負面評價較多,筆者對 其中的一些觀點不太贊同。故本文主要以《史記》和《漢書》為藍本,借鑑前人的研究成 果,以相關的歷史事件為中心,以她與別人之間的矛盾為分析對象。最後並結合諸位大家的 評價,從而對呂后做出一個綜合且相對合乎情理的評價,進而讓後人對呂后有更深的了解。

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Faculty of Arts and Humanities


Department of Chinese




Lu hou, -- consort of Han Gaozu, Emperor of China, -- 241-180 B.C.

呂后, -- 中國皇帝漢高祖之妻, -- 公元前 241-公元前 180

Empresses -- China -- Biography

皇后; 女皇帝 -- 中國 -- 傳記

China -- Politics and government -- 221 B.C.-220 A.D.

中國 -- 政治及政府 -- 秦代-漢代, 公元前 221-公元 220

China -- History -- Han dynasty, 202 B.C.-220 A.D.

中國 -- 歷史 -- 漢代, 公元前 202-公元 220



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