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南宋兩浙路地區家訓研究 = A study of Liangzhe district's family precepts in the Southern Song dynasty

English Abstract

Family precepts are usually leaved by some older parents. They can provide principles for the descendants and regulate descendants’ behaviors. As one of the carriers of culture, the family precepts is a kind of social ideology. The interpretation of them will not only helps us to better understand the traditional culture of our country, but also deepen the understanding of the era of family precepts. In the past few years, the interpretation of family precepts has been extended perspectives from Pedagogy and Cultural Study to interdisciplinary research. The choice of research object has also changed from the family text of "Yan's family precepts" to "Shilin family precepts"and so on. However, in the course of the study, although there have been some papers focus on a certain period history of family precepts, the Southern Song Dynasty and Liangzhe district’s family precepts are rarely mentioned in articles. Actually, The Song Dynasty is the golden age of the family precepts’ history, the development of printing is conducive to the preservation of the family precepts at this time. The Liangzhe district compared with other parts of the same age, it has the largest number of family precepts and the Siming area(a small area of Liangzhe district) is the cultural center of the Southern Song Dynasty, so it is necessary to study family precepts of Liangzhe district in the Southern Song Dynasty. This article analysis seven texts "Tips of Shilin Zhisheng", "Shilin Family Precepts", “Songzhongli", "Tongmao Notes", "Jiazhengji ", "Fangweng Family Precepts", "Yuan's Demonstration", "Jixianxun "and then grasp their characteristics, such as focusing on the cultivation of younger generations, strengthen the management of family affairs and so on. Family percepts are the products of the times. In the Song Dynasty, emperor must follow the orders of ancestors. Through the imperial examination, the government promoted a large number of officials and called for studying. So the people at that time attached great importance to the family education. In order to stabilize social order, the government support some large family to manage the internal affairs in their families. in addition, the government allowed land merger, it provided a way to families to earn money. Since the destruction of social morality in Five Dynasties, the loss of ethics is the important reason 6 why the family precepts was concerned with the moral education of younger generations and called for frugality.

Chinese Abstract

家訓多為家⾧在經歷⼈⽣後留予⼦孫的訓誡之語,可以為⼦孫後輩提供為⼈處事的準則, 從⽽規範他們的⾏為。作為⽂化的載體之⼀,家訓是社會意識形態的家庭化表現,對它的解 讀不僅有助於我們更好的瞭解我國的傳統⽂化,更能加深對家訓所處時代的瞭解。 ⽬前學術界對家訓的解讀已單從教育學、⽂化學的⾓度擴展為跨學科的研究,對研究對 象的選擇亦從常⾒的《顏⽒家訓》、《家範》這⼀類的家訓⽂本轉向《⽯林家訓》、《放翁 家訓》等。然⽽在研究過程中,雖然已有針對某⼀時代家訓做研究的論⽂出現,但南宋兩浙 路地區的家訓卻鮮有⽂章涉及。實際上宋代是家訓史上的⿈⾦時代,印刷術的發展有利於此 時家訓的保存流傳,⽽兩浙路地區相較同時代的其他地區⽽⾔,不僅流傳下來的家訓數⽬較 多,其所轄的四明地區更是南宋的⽂化重鎮,因此對南宋兩浙路地區家訓做研究是很有必要 的。 本⽂通過對《⽯林治⽣要略》、《⽯林家訓》、《送終禮》、《童卯須知》、《家政 集》、《放翁家訓》、《袁⽒⽰範》、《記先訓》這⼋則家訓⽂本進⾏解讀與評介,進⽽把 握它們的特點,如注重⼦孫後代的修養,加強對家庭、家族事務的管理,都有積極的為官態 度,語⾔樸實等等。 同時,家訓這種⽂化形態是時代的產物。南宋兩浙路地區的家訓如此繁盛且出現⼀些共 性的原因⾸先在於宋代「祖宗家法」的設⽴,宋朝通過科舉⼤量提拔⽂⼈做官且積極宣揚讀 書做官的思想,在民間掀起三次興學活動,故當時的⼈們極其重視家庭家族中的教育問題。 ⽽宋朝為了發揮⼤家族在穩定地⽅治安⽅⾯的作⽤,⽀持⼤家族制訂家訓來管理家族內部事 務。其次,宋朝對⼟地的「不抑兼併」的政策使得家族內將置地作為「治⽣」的⼀種策略。 從社會⾵氣來看,五代以來社會道德的敗壞,倫理的喪失是此時家訓中注重⼦孫後代道德教 育,注重優良家⾵傳承的重要原因。這些家訓中有五則倡導節儉,可⾒當時社會奢侈之⾵的 流⾏。⽽⼋則家訓的作者有三位出⾃明州的現象得益於當地經濟⽂化的發展,學⾵的濃厚。

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Faculty of Arts and Humanities


Department of Chinese




Conduct of life


Ethics -- China -- History

倫理 -- 中國 -- 歷史



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