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澳門初中歷史教科書比較研究 :以近代重要個案為例

English Abstract

This research is conducted by using content analysis method and its objectives are to analyze the similarities and differences of Chinese history syllabuses of junior middle school among the mainland China, Hong Kong and Macau, compare history textbooks published in three versions (by People’s Education Press (PEP), Aristo Educational Press (AEP) and Ling Kee Publishing (LKP), respectively) on textbook structure arrangement and design from the perspective of common history textbook of junior middle school in Macau, then analyze the similarities and differences in contents describing the Opium War and KMT-CCP (Kuo Min Tang and Chinese Communist Party) relationship of the three versions mentioned above, and finally evaluate the primary factors that affect textbook editing and reviewing. The results obtained in this study are summarized as follows: 1. Similarities and differences of Chinese history syllabuses of junior middle school among the mainland China, Hong Kong and Macau There is little difference in the syllabuses in the three regions. They all use student-oriented teaching methods but their focus varies from each other. The course outline of the mainland China emphasizes moral education of students, thus listing the requirements in attitude dimension clearly, while that of Hong Kong and Macau stress more on studying pleasantly in order to make junior middle school history course more interesting. The course contents of all three regions are split into political and cultural sections and taught separately. Political section is organized by using “General history” and “Present-detailed and past-brief” methods, and the cultural section is edited with “Project-based” method. The syllabuses of the mainland China might be better in presenting the correlation between political and cultural contents. For the sake of reducing teaching burden, few schools in Macau follow the class hours arranged by History Syllabuses of Junior Middle School. III 2. Textbook structure arrangement and design of PEP, AEP and LKP editions There are big differences of text auxiliary system in the three sets of textbooks. The textbooks of AEP and LKP editions are more exquisite, having illustrations and pictures, with open questions for training students with various abilities, and quoting relatively objective historical data. Meanwhile, they take high school curricula into consideration and lay a foundation for them. The most striking feature of Hong Kong textbooks is to emphasize indigenous history by introducing some suggestions about local culture teaching and the second class at the end of each chapter, which is worthy of learning for Macau to editing local history that suits them best. 3. Analysis of textbook contents of PEP, AEP and LKP editions The three editions are roughly the same in describing historical facts but differ quite a lot in some details and characters. Most illustrations in PEP edition are blurred without annotations. In addition, the contents are with deep political ideology and tend to praise the achievements of CCP and belittle the role of KMT. Compared with that, the textbook contents of AEP and LKP editions are fairer, more neutral and narrated in more detail relatively. 4. Factors resulted in differences of textbook contents between the mainland China and Hong Kong The main causes of these differences are the political ideology and the editor's subjectivity. The mainland China implements socialist system, thus, in order to maintain political order, all textbooks in PEP edition are required to express information about CCP identification, patriotism, anti-KMT, anti-imperialism, anti-capitalism and so forth. Hong Kong has returned to China for nearly 18 years, however, as the differences in political and cultural backgrounds, the perspectives and views of AEP and LKP editions are fairer and more neutral relatively. The edition of historical facts in PEP version stands in the whole historical process of China, but beyond that, textbooks of AEP and LKP editions also pay some attentions to Hong Kong development situation at that time.

Chinese Abstract

本研究採用內容分析法,旨在分析內地、香港及澳門三地的初中歷史科(中 國歷史部分)課程大綱的異同,再從澳門初中常用的歷史教科書的角度,比較分 析人教版、雅集版與齡記版三個版本的教科書結構的編排設計,繼而比較分析三 個版本中描述「鴉片戰爭」及「國共關係」內容的異同,最後分析編審教科書會 受甚麼主要因素影響。研究獲得結論如下: (一) 內地、香港及澳門三地的初中歷史科(中國歷史部分)課程大綱的異同 三地初中歷史科課程大綱整體內容相差不大,都是以學生為中心的教學方式 為主,只是各自的關注點不一。內地《課標》重視學生的道德教育,因而在態度 維度清楚列明其要求,香港《課綱》與澳門《大綱》則較為重視愉快學習,希望 可以增加初中歷史科的趣味性。 三地的教學內容都是將政治部分與文化部分分拆教授,政治部分以「通史體」、 「詳今略古」的方式進行編排,文化部分以「專題式」進行編排。於政治與文化 教學內容的關聯性,內地《課標》較為優勝。澳門甚少學校跟隨《大綱》中安排 教授澳門史的課時,以減輕沉重的教學內容。 (二) 人教版、雅集版與齡記版的教科書結構的編排設計 三套教科書的課文輔助系統存在較大的差異性。雅集版與齡記版的印刷較為 精緻,圖文並茂,具備開放式問題,以訓練學生不同的能力,常引用不同觀點的 史料。同時,注重與高中課程的配合,為高中課程奠定基礎。香港教科書最大特 點是融入鄉土歷史,每章最後都會引入鄉土教學以及第二課堂的建議,值得澳門 借鑒編制適合自身的鄉土歷史。 (三) 人教版、雅集版與齡記版的課文內容分析 三個版本對史事敘述整體大致相同,但其細節及用字間存在一定的差異。人 教版配圖大多數模糊不清,並且不設註釋。課文內容因為需合乎內地《課標》的 要求,較偏向歌頌共產黨的功績,無視國民黨的功勞,其政治意識型態較深。雅 集版與齡記版則較引用多角度的看法,課文內容的敘述亦相對詳盡。 (四) 內地與香港教科書內容差異的歸因考察 造成內地與香港教科書內容差異主要因素有:政治意識型態及編寫者的主觀。 雖然香港已經回歸中國將近 18 年,但由於政治與文化背景不一,造成兩地教科書 在敘述中國近代史時期會產生差異,雅集版與齡記版的課文內容較常引用不同的 觀點與角度的資料。人教版編寫史事是站在整體中國的歷史進程,雅集版與齡記 版則既著重整體中國歷史進程,又關注當時香港發展情況而編寫。

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Faculty of Education




History -- Textbooks

歷史 -- 教科書研究

History -- Study and teaching (Middle School) -- Macau

歷史 -- 學習及教學 (高級小學至初中) -- 澳門

China -- History -- Study and teaching (Middle School) -- Macau

中國 -- 歷史 -- 學習及教學 (高級小學至初中) -- 澳門



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