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UM E-Theses Collection (澳門大學電子學位論文庫)

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Title

論 TRIPS 協定對商業秘密之保護在澳門的落實 =A study of the implementation of protection for trade secrets uder the TRIPS agreement in Macau

English Abstract

With the advances in science and technology, intellectual property becomes the most important intangible property in nowadays’ society, therein trade secret which can bring tremendous benefits and competitive advantages is one of the key issue in international trade. Briefly speaking, trade secrets refer to the confidential information involved in the operation of an enterprise. Due to its own complexity, there are many discrepancies between the protection regimes and standpoints of trade secrets in different countries. Thus, for the purpose of promoting effective and adequate protection of intellectual property rights, the World Trade Organization (WTO) established the Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS Agreement) and it is so far the multilateral treaty with respect to the protection of intellectual property rights which is signed by most countries. Exclusive provisions on protection of trade secrets are included in the TRIPS Agreement; hence the TRIPS Agreement is the first international treaty that regulates trade secrets explicitly, its importance is self-evident. Since Macau is a founding member of WTO and a signatory to the TRIPS Agreement, she is obligated to implement the provisions on the protection of trade secrets of the TRIPS Agreement. However, there are still some gaps between the current legislation of Macau and the TRIPS Agreement on the protection for trade secrets, including: lack of the protection for the submission of test data of pharmaceutical or of agricultural chemical products to the government as regulated in article 39.3 of the TRIPS Agreement; there is an excess element “practical use” as a constituent element of trade secret in article 166 of Macau Commercial Code; the expression of the content of secret nature in article 166 of Macau Commercial Code is not accurate enough; lack of the provision relating the acquisition, disclosure and use of trade secret by third parties; insufficient operability about the civil remedies on the infringement of trade secret; lack of the expression “audita altera parte” in adopting provisional measures in the chinese translation version. Therefore, this thesis is mainly divided into three parts for analyzing. In the first part of this thesis, the TRIPS Agreement which occupies an important position in the international protection of trade secrets is introduced. Firstly, it sets forth on the legislative origins of the TRIPS Agreement and its provisions concerning v the protection of trade secrets so that its legislative background and objective can be understood. Following by analyzing the second part and the third part of the TRIPS Agreement, especially the article 39 of the agreement relating to undisclosed information, to see into the definition, scope, nature, elements and remedial measures of trade secrets, so as to understand the international positioning and protection of trade secrets. Finally, the dispute settlement regime of the TRIPS Agreement is outlined and the only three cases that involved trade secrets are cited. The second part of this thesis describes the Macau legal system of trade secrets. Starting with the legislative history, it probes into the evolution of the protection regime of trade secrets during the Age of Portuguese Macau and after the handover of Macau. Then it analyzes the article 166 about the infringement of secrets under the discipline of competition between entrepreneurs in the Commercial Code of Macau and also the provisions regarding trade secrets which are scattered in other laws and regulations, including the nature, elements, procedures and remedial measures, etc, of trade secrets. The third part links up the studies of the above two parts. It investigates the implementation of Macau’s legislation relating to the protection of trade secrets of the TRIPS Agreement through analyzing and comparing the respective regimes of Macau with that of the TRIPS Agreement, in order to further discuss whether Macau’s legislation meets the standard of the TRIPS Agreement and improve the deficiencies in the current legislation regarding the protection of trade secrets in Macau. Trade secrets have always been actively discussing by lots of scholars. However, there are not many studies involving Macau. Therefore, this thesis attempts to analyze Macau’s legal regime on the protection of trade secrets and I hope it can bring some benefits to the comprehension of the relevant regimes of Macau.

Chinese Abstract

隨著知識科技的發展,知識產權已成為現今社會最重要的一項無形財產,其 中能為企業帶來巨大利益及競爭優勢的商業秘密更是國際貿易上的重點議題之 一。簡而言之,商業秘密就是指商業企業在經營上的機密信息。基於商業秘密自 身的複雜性,各國對商業秘密的保護制度及立場存在不少差異。為了加強對商業 秘密實行有效和充分的保護,世界貿易組織(WTO)制定了《與貿易有關的知 識產權協議》(TRIPS 協定),是迄今得到最多國家簽署的有關保護知識產權的多 邊條約。TRIPS 協定中還加入了專門保護商業秘密的條款,是首部明確對商業秘 密作出規範的國際條約,其重要性不言而喻。而澳門作為 WTO 的創始成員,並 且是 TRIPS 協定的簽署方之一,其有義務落實 TRIPS 協定對商業秘密保護的規 定。不過,澳門現行的立法規定對 TRIPS 協定商業秘密保護仍存在一定差距, 包括欠缺 TRIPS 協定第 39 條第 3 款對有關提供予政府的藥品或農業化學品試驗 數據的保護;澳門《商法典》第 166 條對商業秘密的構成要件多了實際用途這項 要件;《商法典》第 166 條對秘密性的內涵表述不夠準確;欠缺對第三人取得、 披露或利用商業秘密的規定;對侵犯商業秘密的民事救濟規定操作性不足;中譯 本遺漏了「可以在不聽取對方當事人的陳述」而採取適當的臨時措施此表述。 為此,本文主要分為三個部分作出分析。 第一部分主要介紹對商業秘密的國際保護佔重要地位的 TRIPS 協定。本文 首先從 TRIPS 協定及其對商業秘密保護條款之立法淵源出發,以便了解其立法 背景和目的。隨之對 TRIPS 協定的第二部分及第三部分,尤其是對第 39 條有關 未公開信息的條款進行分析,研究商業秘密的定義、範圍、性質、要件及救濟措 施,從而了解國際上對商業秘密的定位及保障。最後簡述 TRIPS 協定的爭端解 決制度,並引述僅有的三個涉及商業秘密的案件。 第二部分則闡述澳門商業秘密的法律制度。首先從商業秘密保護的立法沿革 開始,探討在澳葡時期以至澳門回歸後對商業秘密保護制度的演變。接著便對澳 門《商法典》企業主之間之競爭規則一編中第 166 條有關侵犯秘密以及零散於其 他法規有關商業秘密的規定進行分析,包括商業秘密的性質、構成要件、程序及 救濟等。 第三部分結合上述兩部分的研究,透過對 TRIPS 協定及澳門的制度進行分 析及比較,繼而探討澳門有關商業秘密在立法方面對 TRIPS 協定的落實情況, 以及是否符合 TRIPS 協定的標準,藉以完善澳門現行商業秘密保護法律的不足 之處。 關鍵字:未公開信息,商業秘密,TRIPS 協定,知識產權

Issue date

2015

Author

梁曉欣

Faculty

Faculty of Law

Degree

LL.M.

Subject

Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (1994)

與貿易有關的知識產權協定 (1994)

Trade secrets -- Law and legislation -- Macau

商業秘密 -- 法規 -- 澳門

Confidential business information -- Law and legislation -- Macau

機密商業情報 -- 法規 -- 澳門

Supervisor

汪超

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Location
1/F Zone C
Library URL
991000658589706306