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小額貸款公司法律監管問題及其對策研究 = A study on the problems of legal supervision and solutions for small-loan companies

English Abstract

Microcredit in the mainland of China is not only an institutional innovation for poverty alleviation, but also an important part of the financial development. Small-loan companies are one of the diverse types of microcredit institutions, and defined as limited liability companies or companies limited by shares which are established with investments from natural persons, enterprises as legal-persons or other social organizations, meanwhile forbidding to absorb public deposits and operating small-sum loan businesses. Small-loan companies play an important role in promoting the development of the rural financial market as well as improving its financial services. However, there are still controversies and shortcomings in both theory and practice of legal positions and the supervision system of small-loan companies, and it should be further improved. The so-called legal supervision or regulation is a general term of the whole institution and the system of rules, which aims to ensure the normal and stable operation of small-loan companies, with all related activities of small-loan companies supervised and managed by institutions such as the regulatory agencies and professional supervise departments or other specifically authorized institutions in accordance with laws and regulations or authorized by the State Council. Small-loan companies as credit organizations for farmers and micro companies are only supervised effectively and legally when premising the clear legal definition of its identity and status. Therefore, it is of great significance to study further on how to sort out and analyze the problems of the legal supervision of small-loan companies effectively, and to elicit proper solutions. Based on this, the profound reflections on the problems of effective supervision of small-loan companies are made. Specifically, considering the legal framework and standard system in Mainland China, this study will find out the problems of the legal supervision of small-loan companies, especially of regulatory restrictions in financing and legislation, and then propose a new way for 5 the further analysis of the legislative status of small-loan companies. Based on the definition of the concept of small-loan companies, the author tries to analyze the legal problems and the appropriate regulatory measures to develop the small-loan companies in order to put forward a clear legal path to the future development of small-loan companies, as well as rationalize the idea of legal norms to guide the gradual and smooth development. In specific, the introduction part introduces the research background of small-loan companies as proposed research topic; the first chapter, the second chapter and the third chapter, provide a detailed analysis of the legal connotation of microcredit, the legal supervision system and the problems of the legal supervision of the small-loan companies respectively; the fourth chapter tries to propose the corresponding solutions for small-loan companies. The conclusion points out a great theoretical and practical significance of the effective development of small-loan companies due to the realistic demand of economic development in Mainland China and the financial market.

Chinese Abstract

小額信貸不僅是内地扶貧的一個體制創新,其本身也是整體金融發展的一個 重要組成部份。小額貸款公司是內地眾多提供小額信貸業務的機構之一,是由自 然人、企業法人與其他社會組織投資設立、不吸收公眾⬀款、經營小額貸款業務 的有限責任公司或股份有限公司。小額貸款公司對推動農村金融市場,改善農村 地區金融服務發揮了重大作用。但是不管在理論界還是在實務中,小額貸款公司 的法律定位和監管體系都⬀在爭議和不足,有待進一步的完善。所謂法律監管, 指的是依照法律法規和國務院授權,由國家行政監管機構及專職監督部門等國家 授權專門機構,對小額貸款公司有關的一切活動進行監督和管理,以確保小額貸 款公司正常穩定運行的制度和規則體系的總稱。小額貸款公司作為一個服務農戶 和中小企業的經營信貸業務的組織機構,只有在法律上明確界定其身份和地位, 監管才能有的放矢。 因此,如何有效地梳理和分析小額貸款公司的法律監管問題,並作出有針對 性的路徑對策,都值得深入研究,無論在理論上還是在現實中都具有迫切的意義。 正是基於這種思路,筆者對小額貸款公司的有效監管問題進行了深刻的檢討和反 思。在內地現有實行的法律框架和規範體系下,探討小額貸款公司所面臨的法律 監管問題,尤其是融資監管限制和監管立法方面,進一步分析小額貸款公司的立 法狀態,挖掘其法律監管問題並嘗試探尋出路,是筆者提出內地小額貸款公司的 法律監管問題及其對策研究的主要目的。 筆者將從小額貸款公司的概念界定出發,探討其法律監管問題及相應的規制 對策,以期為小額貸款公司的發展提出明確的法律路徑,理順法律規範思路,使 其在法律引導下逐步順暢發展。具體而言,引言部分介紹小額貸款公司研究課題 提出的背景;第一章、第二章和第三章分別對小額貸款公司概念的法律界定,監 管法律體系和法律監管問題作出詳細的分析和論證;第四章對解決小額貸款公司 的法律監管問題提出相應的對策和完善建議;結論部分提出在內地經濟發展及金 融市場發展的現實需求下有效地發揮小額信貸的作用,深入發展小額貸款公司具 有很大的理論和實踐意義。 關鍵詞:小額信貸,小額信貸機構,小額貸款公司,法律監管

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Faculty of Law




Microfinance -- Law and legislation -- China

微型金融; 小額信貸 -- 法規 -- 中國


Mo Shijian

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