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澳門違法青少年教育監管制度探討 = A study on Macao's educational and tutelage regime of juvenile offenders

English Abstract

Currently, countries are plagued by the issue of juvenile delinquency. With the rapid increase of juvenile delinquency, which greatly threatens social security, we are not only need to ponder its causes, but also need to think carefully about the policy of prevention and correction. In the area of the juvenile judicial system, although theories and systems have been proposed and implemented. Some theories and systems have achieved its expected results, while some have been denied by practice. However, there is no sign that the wave of juvenile delinquency is slowing down. As we all know, juvenile have physical and psychological characteristics which are different from adults. Therefore, special treatment of the criminal justice system for juvenile offenders is necessary. In Macao, the Educational and Tutelage Regime of Juvenile Offenders (called the Regime hereafter) becomes effective in October of 2007, targeting juvenile over 12 years old and below 16 years old. The Regime is different from the Macao Penal Code (called the Code hereafter) which targets people over 16 years old. The legislative purpose of both the Regime and the Code are different. The Regime focuses more on education, while the Code focuses more on punishment. Macao has established a regime which is mainly based on education and protection. Since its effective date till now, some education tutelary measures have never been used, while some have only been used by a few cases. Although some have always been applicable, they do not result in juvenile who have learnt to abide by the laws and have returned to the society successfully. What exactly are the problems with our regime? In our opinion, the problem lies in how to build a complete juvenile judicial system, which can achieve the goal of protecting and educating the juvenile offenders and at the same time correct the worsening deviated and criminal behaviors of the juvenile. Through the analysis of the current educational and tutelage regime for juvenile offenders in Macao, the advantages and disadvantages of the current regime are reviewed so as to suggest improvements on crime prevention and amendment of the law. Moreover, we hope that the improvements can facilitate the normal operation of the juvenile judicial system. In one hand, it can help the juvenile who go astray to return to the right path. In the other hand, it can ensure social peace and protect the victims' rights. The thesis is organized into seven chapters. Chapter 1 describes the definition and mode of rights for the juvenile. The description of the historical development of the juvenile judicial system in Macao is also provided. Chapter 2 analyzes the framework, applicable premise, categories of ii measures, regulations of suitable measures and the detail contents of each measure of the Regime. Chapter 3 briefly describe the implementation of each measure in the Regime. Chapter 4 provides, through empirical experience, recommendations on improvement for each of the measure and even the laws in the Regime, also analyzes by comparing with the other countries, the role and functionality of the Prosecutions Office in the Regime. Chapter 5 provides recommendations base on the frequency of the utilization of each measure of the regime, we also investigate the restorative juvenile justice systems in other countries and its application in Macao. Chapter 6 generalizes the incentives for juvenile delinquency, investigates methods of crime prevention and how to launch follow up jobs for family, school and community, in order to consolidate the juvenile's life after the measures of the educational tutelage, in particular, to focus on how offenders return to society after the application of detention measure. Chapter 7 provides the overall conclusions. Key words: “Juvenile Offenders, Educational Tutelage, Juvenile Judicial System”

Chinese Abstract

當前,各國正被青少年犯罪問題所困擾,面對青少年犯罪直線上升,對社會安全造成 極大的威脅,我們不僅要認真思索它的原因,更要思索它的防治矯正對策。儘管在少年 司法制度的領域裡,各種理論及制度已被提出及制定,有的取得了預期的效果,有的卻 被實踐所否定,而青少年犯罪的浪潮依然未有減退的跡象。 眾所周知,未成年人具有不同於成年人的身心特點,從而在未成年人犯罪的刑事司法 制度上也應該區別對待。在本澳,2007 年 10 月«違法青少年教育監管制度»正式生效, 有關制度的適用對象為年滿 12 嵗但未滿 16 嵗的青少年,與澳門«刑法典»的適用對象為 年滿 16 嵗人士的規定有所區別。而兩者的立法目的也有不同,前者以教育為主;而後 者則以懲罰為要。 澳門設立這部以教育及保護為主軸的制度生效至今,個別教育監管措施從未被適用過、 有的只有少數案件被採用過、有的經常被採用卻往往沒有因此而造就學會遵守法律及順 利回歸社會的青少年,我們的制度究竟出了甚麼問題? 筆者試圖透過本文分析澳門現行的違法青少年教育監管制度的內容、檢視制度的利弊, 從而提出改善及預防犯罪和修法的建議,以利於構建一個既達到保護和教育青少年的目 的、又能矯治青少年日趨嚴重的偏差和犯罪行為的少年司法系統,希望藉此有助少年司 法制度的運行,一方面,幫助誤入歧途的青少年回歸正途;另一方面,確保社會的安寧 及保障被害人的權益。 本文共分為七章,第一章對未成年人的定義和權利模式作描述,以及對澳門少年司法 制度的歷史發展脈絡進行梳理;第二章分析澳門違法青少年教育監管制度的架構、適用 前提、措施分類、適用措施的規則,以及各項措施的具體內容;第三章概說各項教育監 管措施的執行情況;第四章以實證的經驗對各項措施以至法律規定不完善之處提出檢討 建議,並以比較其他國家的方式,檢視檢察院在教育監管制度中所擔當的角色及職能; 第五章針對各項教育監管措施的使用率提出對應的調整對策,並探討了恢復性少年司法 ii 制度在其他國家及在本澳的應用情況;第六章歸納青少年犯罪的誘因、探討預防犯罪的 方法,以及如何開展家庭、學校及社區之後續跟進工作,以便鞏固青少年在完成教育監 管措施後之生活,尤其重點關注被採取收容措施後的青少年如何回歸社會;第七章進行 全文的歸納總結。 關鍵字: “違法青少年,教育監管,少年司法制度”

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Faculty of Law




Juvenile delinquency -- Macau

青少年犯罪 -- 澳門



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