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UM E-Theses Collection (澳門大學電子學位論文庫)

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Title

論中國內地不得強迫自證其罪原則與犯罪嫌疑人權利保障 =Study on the privilege against self-incrimination and protection of suspects' rights in Mainland China

English Abstract

In recent years, the media have exposed a number of miscarriages of justice in mainland China, and it has caused wide public concern in society. Torture and other illegal means to obtain evidence are important factors leading to miscarriages of justice, so the improvement of relevant legal regulations is an important measure to curb the occurrence of miscarriages of justice. With the proceeding of law reform in mainland China, the amendment of "People's Republic of China Criminal Procedure Law" in 2012 set out the privilege against self-incrimination for the first time, and it made great progress in criminal procedure law. The privilege against self-incrimination is not only the reflection of protection of suspects, defendants and witnesses in criminal procedure, but also a fundamental legal principle recognized by international community. The privilege against self-incrimination helps reduce miscarriages of justice caused by illegal means to obtain evidence and reinforce respect and protection of human rights. Therefore, the thesis study on the protection of suspects' rights and application of privilege against self-incrimination in mainland China. The thesis is composed of four chapters. Chapter I explains subject range, type of evidence, connotation of "compel" and application stage of privilege against self-incrimination according to International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, and it also describes the importance of the principle, exclusionary rule of illegally obtained evidence and criminal defense system. Chapter II introduces the background and concrete content of privilege against self-incrimination in mainland China, and puts forward two key issues: First, how to improve to rights and obligations related to privilege against self-incrimination. Second, how to make the principle applied effectively when the status between suspects and witnesses changes. Chapter III and Chapter IV study these two issues respectively, and compare the relevant law system about privilege against self-incrimination in Germany, Japan, Taiwan and Macao, which are all continental legal system countries and regions. Then the thesis puts forward IV suggestions according to the actual situation of mainland China: improve the rights to be informed,privilege of silence, and obligation to answer truthfully in criminal procedural; confirm the obligation to inform by judicial authority when suspects change into witnesses, and confirm when witness change into suspects, they have the rights to refuse to answer, the rights to be informed to refuse to answer, and the rights to be informed to turn into suspects. The thesis hopes to improve the concrete system of criminal procedure law so as to promote the application of privilege against self-incrimination in mainland China. Key words: new Criminal Procedure Law, the privilege against self-incrimination,suspects, rights protection, improvement

Chinese Abstract

近年来,媒体陆续曝光了一些中国内地的重大冤假错案,引起了社会的广泛 关注,究其原因,可以发现刑讯逼供等非法取证手段是导致这些冤假错案的重要 因素,而不断完善相关的法律规定是遏制冤假错案发生的重要举措。随着中国内 地法治进程的推进和法治改革的深化,2012 年《中华人民共和国刑事诉讼法》 的修订首次规定了不得强迫自证其罪原则,这无疑是中国刑事诉讼法的一大进 步。不得强迫自证其罪的规定不仅是刑事诉讼中保障犯罪嫌疑人、被告人和证人 权利的重要体现,也是国际社会普遍认可的一项人权原则。明确不得强迫自证其 罪原则有助于减少侦查机关采用非法手段收集证据而导致的冤假错案,进一步加 强对人权的尊重和保障。因此,本文以犯罪嫌疑人权利保障为切入点,对不得强 迫自证其罪原则在中国内地首次确立后的具体适用进行研究。 本论文共分为四章予以论述。第一章以联合国《公民权利和政治权利国际公 约》中不得强迫自证其罪原则的规定为标准,阐述了不得强迫自证其罪原则的主 体范围、所保护的证据类型、“强迫”的内涵和适用阶段,并对非法证据排除制 度和辩护制度这两项配套制度及该原则的重要意义作了介绍。第二章通过梳理不 得强迫自证其罪原则在中国内地确立的背景和具体规定,提出两个重点问题:第 一、如何完善与不得强迫自证其罪原则相关的犯罪嫌疑人的权利和义务。第二、 如何在犯罪嫌疑人和证人身份转换的情况下使不得强迫自证其罪原则得以有效 的适用。第三章和第四章则分别围绕着上述两个问题展开研究,通过对德国、日 本、台湾和澳门四个大陆法系国家及地区关于不得强迫自证其罪原则的相关制度 进行比较分析,并结合中国内地的实际情况提出具体的建议:完善刑事诉讼法中 犯罪嫌疑人的被告知权、沉默权和如实回答义务;明确犯罪嫌疑人转换成证人的 情况下,司法机关应承担的明示义务,及明确证人转换为犯罪嫌疑人的情况下, 证人应享有拒绝回答权、拒绝回答权的被告知权和成为嫌犯的被告知权。本文希 望通过完善上述刑事诉讼法的具体规定从而促进不得强迫自证其罪原则在中国 内地的本土化适用。 关键字: 现行《刑事诉讼法》、不得强迫自证其罪原则、犯罪嫌疑人、权利保障、完善

Issue date

2015

Author

趙璇

Faculty

Faculty of Law

Degree

LL.M.

Subject

Self-incrimination -- China

自證其罪 -- 中國

Criminal procedure -- China

刑事訴訟法 -- 中國

Juridical Sciences (Chinese Language) -- Faculty of Law

中文法學 -- 法學院

Supervisor

李哲

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Full-text (Intranet)

Location
1/F Zone C
Library URL
991000623129706306