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後勞教時代中國法制的完善 :強制性法律變遷後制度縫隙的彌合與類勞教措施的改造 =;Perfection of the Chinese legal system in the post reeducation through labor age : bridge the gap of legal system and reform quasi-reeducation through labor af

English Abstract

The abolition of reeducation through labor system was regarded as a major step forward on the way to protect human rights in China. Through a series of change of legal norm, Chinese authority achieves a smooth transition of society after the abolition of reeducation through labor system by using judicial interpretations of the supreme judicial departments. These measures will cause the acts that are original binded by reeducation through labor to be incorporated into Criminal Law, or to be classified into Security Administration Punishment Act. However, this approach has not fully absorbed the adjustment of reeducation through labor system. However, no substitute legal system appears after the abolition of reeducation through labor. Therefore, the gap appears at the institutional level. In this gap, people who violate the social orders are free from the criminal law, and the public security punishment is also ineffectiveness for them. Bridging the gap of the above legal system has great practical significance. In addition, some kinds of measures that have similar function to reeducation through labor still exist, which has the homogeneous defectives as reeducation through labor in judging the neutrality and procedure justice of the legal institutions. These defectives are a serious threat to the protection of human rights. The shortcomings of those legal measures should be reformed. I think that the gap of legal system can be bridged in two methods: first, by using the amendment to the criminal law or judicial interpretation of criminal law, acts in the gap can be covered by the adjustment range of criminal law; Second, considering the Criminal Law Amendment (viii) regards pickpocket, burglary and other minor offenses as criminal act, take that as an opportunity to expand the range of misdemeanor gradually, and to built completely misdemeanor system which is in accord with the situation of China. The first method has emergency function, and the second one has long-term significance. Concerning the reform of these legal measures which are similar to reeducation through labor, I choose reeducation and detaining education, which have the same defects and own particular, as typical examples to research on and put forward reform idea.

Chinese Abstract

劳动教养制度的废除堪称是中国人权保障道路上的一大进步。中国决策层通 过一系列的法律规范变动,最终借助最高司法机关的司法解释实现了废止劳教制 度的社会平稳过渡。以上举措将原来可被劳动教养的行为或被纳入刑法领域,或 者被归入治安管理处罚法领域。然而这种分流化解的做法未能全部吸收劳动教养 制度的调整内容。而劳教制度废止后并未出现替代性法律制度,因此,制度层面 出现了缝隙,缝隙之下是一些破坏社会治安秩序的人,这类人不被刑法所辖制, 采取治安处罚的方式缺乏有效性,及时弥合上述制度缝隙具有重大现实意义。此 外,与劳教措施功能相仿的一些类劳教措施尚存,它们在决定机构的非中立性及 程序正当性上的缺陷与劳动教养同质,是对人权保障的严重威胁,这些措施应针 对其缺陷进行改造。 笔者认为,制度缝隙的弥合可以存有两个备选方案:第一,以刑法修正案或 刑事法律司法解释对于缝隙之中的“脱控”行为,直接纳入刑法调整范围。第二, 以刑法修正案(八)将扒窃、入户盗窃等轻微违法行为作犯罪处理为契机,逐步 扩大轻罪圈,最终全面建成符合中国国情的轻罪制度。方案一具有应急效用,而 方案二则具有长效意义。关于类劳教措施的改造,笔者选取了既具有共性缺陷又 具有特殊问题的两项措施——收容教养、收容教育作为研究对象提出改建构想, 作为其他类劳教措施改造的样本。

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Faculty of Law




Forced labor -- China

強迫勞動 -- 中國

Criminals -- Rehabilitation -- Law and legislation -- China

罪犯 -- 改過 -- 法規 -- 中國

Juridical Sciences (Chinese Language) -- Faculty of Law

中文法學 -- 法學院



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