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訴權視角下刑事被害人的權利保障 = The protection of criminal victim's rights in perspective of right of action

English Abstract

The criminal victims who is a direct violation by the crime.In the modern society, along with the rising crime rate,the number of the victims is also increasing. At the same time,the victim is becoming a" the starter of the case "and"bystander". Although the criminal procedure is always being functioned monopoly by the government since the idea of “the government handles prosecution functions”was accepted,the idea mentioned above can not deny the status of criminal victims for there are some differences between the benefits reflected by the idea and the benefits of victims.In fact, for the protection of victims is not perfect led to a large number of victim petitions. Judicature is the last line of defense to protect the rights of citizens,Once civil rights are violated, you have to seek the judicial relief.The victim exercises his right of action is the most important and direct way.As a basic right, the citizens,legal persons and other organizations start legal proceedings for judicial judgment to achieve substantive rights only by the right of action.The right of action is improtant for realize the substantive rights and for the construction of the criminal litigation system. The study of theory of the right of action in our country focuses on the field of the science of civil procedure law. Although some scholars in the criminal field also pay their attention to the theoretical study of the right of action,few scholars pay their attention to victim’s right of action. This paper try to start from the analysis of the theory of right of action,come to conclusion--right of action is the basis of all litigations.And then,focuses on the definiton of key words: right of action, criminal right of action and criminal victim.Exploring the forms, contents and means to exercise victim’s right of action in criminal proceedings can be helpful to fill in the blanks in the study of the right of criminal action, can promote the deepening of the theoretical study of the right of criminal action and establish and perfect the legal 4 system of protecting the right of criminal action in our country and the protection of human rights.

Chinese Abstract

刑事被害人是受犯罪行為直接侵害之人,現代社會,隨著犯罪率的上升, 被害人的數量也在不斷增加。與此同時,在“以被告人權利保護為中心”的刑 事司法制度下,被害人逐漸淪為“案件的啟動者”和“旁觀者”。國家追訴主義 割裂了被害人和犯罪人之間的關係,對於被害人的保護嚴重失衡,加強對刑事 被害人的保護刻不容緩。在國家追訴模式之下,國家雖然能夠代表被害人的某 些訴求,但是兩者的利益並不能完全重合,如果處理不當,被害人和被告人的 矛盾就会更加尖銳,被害人也容易形成對國家、社會的仇恨,甚至走向極端。 司法實踐中出現的很多被害人上訪事件,與現有制度對被害人權利保障的不完 善有很大關係。 司法作為保護公民權益的最後一道防線,被害人在其權益受到犯罪行為侵 犯時有尋求司法救濟的需求,被害人尋求司法救濟最重要、最直接的方式就是 行使訴權。訴權是人們在權益受到侵害時請求司法救濟的權利,是連接實體權 利與司法救濟的橋梁,訴權為權利的實現提供了一種程序化的保障機制。作為 一項基礎性權利,訴權是公民、法人和其他組織啟動訴訟程序獲得司法裁判實 現實體權利的保障。訴權不僅對於救濟實體權利有保障作用,對整個權利體系 的架構與實現均具有根本性的意義。訴訟中當事人的各項訴訟權利都是圍繞訴 權而設立的,有什麼樣的訴權就應該配置相應的訴訟權利。 訴權理論一直以來都是民事訴訟理論討論的重點,是民事訴訟的理論基石。 本文試著從對訴權理論的分析入手,得出結論——訴權是所有訴訟制度的基礎, 民事訴訟、刑事訴訟和行政訴訟都不能離開訴權存在。科學的範疇,準確的定 義是一門學科建立的標誌,也是論述展開的基點,概念不明就會在內涵和外延 的把握上出現異議。因此本文從界定訴權、刑事訴權、刑事被害人這幾個關鍵 概念展開分析。清晰界定刑事被害人,才能準確把握本文所要研究的重點保護 對象。對於刑事訴權的全面理解,理性分析才能更加理解刑事訴權的內涵和特 征,從而更好地區分訴權與非訴權,才能根據刑事訴權來設置各訴訟主體在刑 事訴訟中的各項權利,實現國家、被害人和被告人三者之間的利益平衡,從而 有針對性地對我國刑事被害人的權利加以完善,保障刑事被害人的權益。

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Faculty of Law




Victims of crimes


Victims of crimes -- Civil rights

罪行受害者 -- 公民權



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