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論道德在刑法中的運用 :兼論兩者的衝突與抉擇 = On the application of morality in criminal laws : also on their conflicts and choices

English Abstract

Criminal laws and morality complement each other and are indispensable since the ancient times. The application of diversified ethics in criminal laws implicates some moral factors in terms of the stages like legislation, justice, and execution. However, due to the difference of source and characteristics, their conflicts are unavoidable. Therefore, it is a common problem in judicial practice to balance their conflicts and promoting the performance of morality in criminal laws. This paper discusses above problems by centering on the perspective of criminal law, and with the assistance of ethics and legal philosophy. Meanwhile, this paper consists of the following seven parts: The first part is the overview of ethics, and it defines scope for the concept of moral ethics in this paper. At the beginning, it analyzes the concept of morality, ethics, and common sense. By introducing the opinions about morality from classical works, it points out that the word "morality" in this paper covers the content of morality, ethics, and common sense. Then, it analyzes the temporal-spatial difference, conformity, automatic applicability, and internal conflict of morality, as well as the external forms of expression, such as public opinion, custom, and religion, thus laying foundation for the following statements on the application of morality in criminal laws. The second part discusses about the relationship between morality and criminal laws. It states that criminal law and morality are instrumental arrangements to maintain social order, but they are of different functions. In terms of the role of morality in criminal laws, it expresses that morality provides theoretical support for the valid existence of criminal laws from the perspective of social contract and natural law philosophy. The third part elaborates the historical tradition for the close combination of criminal laws and morality. Viewing from criminal law systems both at home and abroad in the history, it observes the integration of criminal laws and morality, as well as the driving force to traditional criminal laws from morality. The fourth part is the application of morality in China's existing criminal laws. This part enumerates that related systems about conviction and sentencing in China's existing criminal laws absorbs from moral factors, and the execution of criminal laws develops to moral direction. At the same time, it puts forward that the free evaluation of evidence from judicial judge cannot be away from the moral sense behind the life experience. The fifth part is the necessity to determine boundary between criminal laws and morality. Through discussing different radiation scopes, executive cost, and other aspects between morality and criminal laws, it puts forward that under the condition of moral declining and moral panic, modesty of criminal laws should be maintained. The sixth part starts from some classical cases, and discusses the conflicts between criminal laws and morality. It analyzes the possibility of imposing negative influences between criminal laws and morality, and proposes opinions on how to make choices when there are conflicts between criminal laws and morality. Based on this, aiming at harmonizing the conflicts between criminal laws and morality, it puts forward some suggestions on legislation. The seventh part is a summary for all the contents in this paper. Wherein, the first, second, third, and fourth part mainly lay emphasis on the application of morality in criminal laws. However, the fifth and sixth parts lay emphasis on the conflicts and choices between criminal laws and morality.

Chinese Abstract

刑法與道德自古以來相輔相成、缺一不可。道德倫理以多樣化的形式在刑 法中運用,在刑法的立法、司法、執行階段都隱含著道德的因素。但由於來源 和特性的不同,兩者的衝突不可避免,如何平衡兩者的矛盾,讓道德在刑法中 發揮更大的良性作用是司法實踐中常常需要面對的困惑。本文以刑法學角度為 主,輔之以倫理學、法哲學,探討以上問題。本文由以下七個部份組成: 第一章是對道德倫理的概述,為本文中的道德倫理概念界定範圍。首先剖 析道德、倫理、情理等詞各自的概念,弓丨述經典著作中關於道德的見解,指出 本文的道德一詞涵蓋道德、倫理、情理的內容。然後分析道德的時空差異性、 從眾性、自動適用性、內在衝突性等特徵,以及輿論、風俗習慣、宗教信仰等 道德的外在表現形式,為後文敘述道德在刑法中的運用做鋪墊。 第二章論述道德與刑法的關係。指出刑法和道德均是維護社會秩序的工具 性的安排,只是功能分工不同。在道德對刑法的作用上,從社會契約論和自然 法哲學的角度闡釋道德為刑法存的合法性提供了理論上的支持。 第三章闡述了刑法與道德緊密結合的歷史傳統。從歷史上中外的刑法制度 中觀察道德與刑法的融合方式以及道德對傳統刑法的推動作用。 第四章是關於道德在我國現行刑法中的運用。該部份列舉了我國現行刑法 中定罪量刑的相關制度對道德因素的吸收,以及刑法執行向道德感化方向發展 的趨勢,并提出法官的自由心證無法避免生活經驗背後的道德情理觀念。 第五章關於刑法與道德之間確定界限的必要性。通過道德與刑法不同的輻 射範圍、執行成本等方面來論述,提出在當今道德滑坡、道德恐慌的情勢下, 應保持刑法的謙抑性。 第六章從幾個經典案例為切入點,論述了刑法與道德之間存在的衝突。分 析了刑法與道德存在相互負面影響的可能性,并對於當兩者間產生衝突時應如 何選擇適用提出了作者的觀點。在此基礎上,以調和刑法與道德的衝突為目的, 提出了幾點立法建議。 第七章是對全文主要內容的總結。 其中,第一、二、三、四章側重論述道德在刑法中的運用。第五、六章側 重論述刑法與道德的衝突與抉擇。

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Faculty of Law




Criminal law -- China

刑法 -- 中國

Law -- Moral and ethical aspects -- China

法律 -- 倫理及道德方面 -- 中國

Juridical Sciences (Chinese Language) -- Faculty of Law

中文法學 -- 法學院



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