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臺靜農小說中的人文精神 = The humanism from the novels of Tai Ching-Nung

English Abstract

Tai Ching-Nung (1902 ─ 1990) was an important literary writer in 1920s. His novels which are appreciated by Xun Lu have significant impact. Tai started his literary creation in 1924, with most of his works being love novels at the beginning. Starting from the winter in 1926, in order to solve the problem of shortage in writing submission, Tai began writing local folk novels in a great amount: Son of the Field and The Builders of the Tower are two collections of short stories published successively in 1928 and 1930. The short stories in Son of the Field were written between 1926 and 1927. These stories mainly describe the customs and people in the ancient town, show the tragic fate of the rural people, reveal the old Chinese’s ignorance and numbness, as well as criticize the evilness of the people of the nation. Tai’s works contain high artistic features and distinctive ideas of contemporary society. Due to Tai’s ideological advancement, the short stories in The Builders of the Tower mostly depict the revolutionary fight of the awakening peasants. Tai’s passionate narrative style stimulates people’s thinking and expresses the tendency of being classified as revolutionary writings. His stories are shown to fight against unreasonable phenomenon, yearn for a brighter future, as well as eulogize the great martyrs’ faith and devotion. As such, Tai’s writings are valuable literary works which reflect China’s progress in the twenties. With the outbreak of war, Tai experienced instability and wandered around through years. Feeling disappointed with the decadent government, hatred towards the invaders, and compassion for the revolutionaries, Tai wrote several novels which employ the theme of war during that period. With passionate and aggressive attitude in the writings, every Chinese are called to face this dripping blood and courageous struggle 7 bravely in order to affirm the belief in the victory of the National Revolutionary War. Tai started off with writing love novels, while his local folk novels finally establish his position in the history of modern novels. His narrative in the local folk novels models after Xun Lu's style. Criticizing the feudal patriarchal system which oppresses against humanity, Tai’s works, enveloping implicit and dark tones, lay out the image of people’s misery and ignorance in rural China. The oppressive mood reveals Tai’s desperate anguish and heart-stricken yearns. This sense of loneliness which resembles Xun Lu’s writings is not easily achieved by any writer. This fully shows Tai’s deep philosophical concepts, and the humanistic spirits of caring the nation, society, and the people. In consideration of Tai’s writings in various stages, his novels in each period portray different artistic and ideological explorations. Tai’s concern for his contemporary era is fully reflected in his writings. Despite the expressed criticism, Tai’s worry about the fate of the motherland and his deep love towards the country are also revealed. From Tai’s writings, people can see his inheritance of Xun Lu’s humanistic spirits. Regardless of the pursuit of the style of tragedy, and the criticism in the cultural level, Xun Lu’s writing style can also be seen in Tai’s works. Basing on his own rational analysis of his life encounters, Tai aims at developing the theme of "Life" in his writings. Infusing his deep and sincere feelings of grief, Tai completely reveals the terror in Chinese countryside. In so doing, Tai’s excellent writing skill is expressed. This thesis is divided into six chapters: Chapter I discusses Tai’s participation in the criticism and the change of his times; Chapter II explores Tai’s depiction of "Life" and "Death", people’s indifference and humanity; Chapter III investigates into Tai’s revolutionary theme in the collections; Chapter IV analyzes the hope in Tai’s writings during the dark ages; Chapter V studies the theme of war in Tai’s 8 writings; and Chapter VI argues that Tai’s writings continue the narrative of “Life Reformation” after Xun Lu. This thesis aims at filling up the gaps in the discussion of humanistic spirits in Tai’s writings, and thus provides a conclusion of Tai’s works.

Chinese Abstract

臺靜農(1902─1990 年)是二十世紀二十年代重要的文學作家,他的小說 創作在當時有着重要影響,並為魯迅所賞識。 臺靜農於一九二四年開始文學創作,開始的作品多為愛情小說的創作,從一 九二六年冬天開始,為了解決稿源問題,臺靜農開始了鄉土小說的創作,從此之 後便一發不可收拾。《地之子》和《建塔者》兩個小說集在一九二八年和一九三 ○年接連出版了。 《地之子》中的小說多創作於一九二六到一九二七年之間,主要描寫了古老 鄉鎮的風俗人情畫面,展現了鄉村百姓的悲劇命運,揭示了老中國兒女靈魂的愚 昧與麻木,批判了國民劣根性,具有較高的藝術特色、鮮明的思想性和時代性。 因為臺靜農思想上的進步,《建塔者》中的小說寫的多是覺醒的農民轟轟烈烈的 反抗鬥爭,在熱情洋溢的敍述中令人振奮,思想上更為激進,表現出“革命小說” 傾向,小說表現了反對不合理現象的憤慨和向往光明未來的激情,謳歌了革命先 烈的信仰和偉大的獻身精神,成為反映二十年代中國進步事業的難能可貴的文學 收穫。 隨着抗戰的爆發,臺靜農經歷戰火紛飛、漂泊寄居的歲月,對腐朽政府的失 望,對侵略者的憎恨,對革命志士的理解、同情,臺靜農在這一時期又寫出了幾 篇以抗戰為題材的小說,以激昂進取的姿態號召每一位炎黃子孫勇敢地面對這淋 漓的鮮血,勇敢的鬥爭,堅定對民族革命戰爭勝利的信念。 臺靜農以愛情小說的創作走上文壇,而鄉土小說的創作才真正確立了他在現 代小說史上地位。他的鄉土小說的創作師承魯迅的文風。抨擊封建宗法制度對人 性的壓迫,這些作品以陰晦的色調勾畫出中國鄉村中的兒女們苦難和愚昧的塑像, 在沉悶壓抑的情調中,透露着臺靜農絕望苦悶、撕人心肺的吶喊。這種與魯迅小 說相似的不易被人理解的孤獨感,不是一般作家所能達到的,它充分地顯示出這 位作家較深邃的哲學觀念,關懷國家、社會、人民的人文精神。 5 縱觀臺靜農的小說創作,從愛情小說涉入文壇,到成熟的鄉土小說,思想激 進的革命小說到激情憤慨的抗戰小說,每一時期的小說在藝術手法上和思想開掘 上都有所不同,充分反映了臺靜農對所處時代的密切關注。儘管謳歌中不乏批判 與揭露,但從另一個角度說明了作為炎黃子孫和民族文化的精英對祖國命運的擔 憂以及深摯的熱愛之情。 在臺靜農的小說中,可見他積極傳承魯迅的人文精神,不論悲劇風格的追求, 還是文化層面的批判,也可看到魯迅小說的印痕。臺靜農以自己對生活素材的理 性分析為基礎,以“為人生”為創作目的,融進異常深摯的悲憤之情,把中國鄉 間的恐怖,和盤托出,把這種陰冷發揮到極致,這就帶來了臺靜農的渾厚。 本論文共分六章:第一章論述臺靜農小說參與時代的批評和變革,第二章探 討臺靜農小說抒寫民間“生”和“死”、人間的冷漠和人道精神,第三章研究臺 靜農小說的革命題材,第四章剖析臺靜農小說在黑暗時代中看見的一曙希望,第 五章探究臺靜農小說的抗戰題材,第六章論說臺靜農小說延續魯迅“改良人生” 之健筆。本文論述分章次序是根據臺靜農小說的創作時間(由最早到最晚)而定, 研究方向為填補臺靜農小說裏人文精神的論述和總結之空白。

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Faculty of Arts and Humanities


Department of Chinese




Tai, Ching Nung, -- 1902-1990 -- Criticism and interpretation

臺靜農, -- 1902-1990 -- 評論及解釋



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