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論澳門土地神信仰及其在文學中的形象 = Macau land god's conviction and the image in literature

English Abstract

After the handover of Macau to China in 1999, there are getting a lot of researchers have put the attention on the traditional culture of Macau. It is found that except from the historical Catholic churches and constructions in various Western styles, a lot of Chinese temples with large historical value were kept as well. For example, Temple of Local God of Land, Ancestral Temple of FokTak at Horta e Mitra and Ancestral Temple of FokTak at Praia do Manduco, ect. There are some researchers analysing it in the way of Historiography, Architecture or Sociology. In this article, various past researching results about temple of local God of Land will be assorted and organised, and the social function regarding to worship to the God of Land will be seeked. Moreover, we will also analysed in the way of literature to see how its image in Macau literature itself. It is because that the influence from the religion of God of Land to this city is not only limited with Historiography, Architecture and Sociology, but also deep to the cultural imagination and social living environment towards all of the Macau citizens so then to influence the litetal works. In this article, the image of God of Land will be analysed according to "The Journey To The West" and "A Dream of Red Mansions" , which are from The Four Great Classical Novels of Chinese literature so as to be compared with the image of religion of God of Land in China. Therefore, the differences and similarities can be observed after this comparison. Furthermore, the comparison between the imagination towards the God of Land in Macau local creation and its worship in real life will also be made. In the end, we will make a comprehensive comparison and analyse throughly between two researches above, then to have the following conclusion : Although the religion of God of Land in Macau has not been as prosperous as previous old time, it is still maintained until now. 5 And after the days passing, the image of God of Land has got some changes in the local people so as to influence the transition and development about its image in the literal pieces. From the other side, we can also observe that how the history and culture being transferred and changed.

Chinese Abstract

1999 年澳門回歸中國後,越來越多研究者把目光放在澳門的傳統文化上, 發現澳門除了有歷史悠久的天主教教堂、各種西式的建築之外,還保留了多所極 具歷史價值的中式廟宇,其中包括沙梨頭土地廟、雀仔園福德祠、下環福德祠等。 有學者以歷史學的角度去分析它,有學者就以建築學的角度去解剖它,更有學者 以社會學的角度去研究它。而本文將綜合、整理前人對澳門土地神廟的各種研究 成果,探索土地神崇拜的社會功能,並從文學的角度去分析土地神在澳門文學中 的形象,因為土地神信仰對澳門這個城市的影響已不局限於歷史學、建築學與社 會學而已,而是深入到澳門市民的文化想像和社會生活空間,從而影響著筆下的 文學作品。 本文先通過中國四大名著中的《西遊記》與《紅樓夢》來分析該書中土地神 的形象,並與當時中國大陸中的土地神信仰的形象作比較,從中得出二者之間的 異同與關係;再就本澳創作中對土地神的想像與澳門現實生活中的土地神崇拜作 比較;最後,再與前者作整體的綜合比較分析,如土地神在經典文學中的形象與 它在澳門文學作品中的形象作比較,並得出以下的結論:澳門的土地神信仰雖然 已不如當年鼎盛,但是仍然保留下來了,而土地神在市民心中的形象經過歲月的 洗禮後,已有所改變,從而影響著文人筆下的土地神形象的變遷與發展。從另一 角度看,在文人筆下的文學作品中也可窺見歷史文化的傳承和變異。

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Faculty of Arts and Humanities




Religion and culture -- Macau

宗教與文化 -- 澳門

Temples, Chinese -- Macau

中國廟宇 -- 澳門

Gods, Chinese -- Macau

中國眾神祇 -- 澳門



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