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道德的萌芽 : 幼稚園學生道德判斷力初探

English Abstract

The study aims to investigate into the ways kindergarteners deal with moral problems, and to examine the underlying psychological factors of their moral judgment and moral dispositions. Thus, it is hoped that insights can be shed on the moral development of young children. The study undertakes a grounded theory approach towards the problem under investigation. A group of 18 (half from each gender) kindergarteners from K1 to K3 classes are to be interviewed individually and observed among their classmates. Data collected are then coded, categorized and theorized in order to (i) give an in-depth description of the moral responses of kindergarteners and (ii) reach for an account of the important psychological factors contributing to pro-social moral judgments and behaviors of kindergarteners. It is observed that all kindergarteners are capable of understanding and responding to moral problems. Their ways of coping and reasoning exhibit a rich complexity of choices.Moreover, some of them show flexible deliberations in respond to different moral circumstances. Grounded in the responses given and the behaviors exhibited by the children, two prototypes are demarcated for comparison's sake--those with more pro-social dispositions exhibited and those with less. It is found from the comparison that linguistic competence, peer relationship,social competence, role-taking and self-control are among the most distinguishing factors of moral judgment and dispositions of kindergarteners. In addition to the above results, age and gender differences are also observed in choices of moral judgment and behavior; for instance, older children show better grasp of moral language as well as general well-being in their handling of moral problems. Nonetheless, this observation is in need of further substantiation in order to become a conclusive argument on the moral development of young children. In conclusion, educational implications are drawn from the discussions and suggestions for moral upbringing of young children are offered for the school, the teacher and the parent in the hope of cultivating the young's moral awareness, responsiveness and deliberation. Keywords: moral judgment, moral development, moral education, kindergartener, grounded theory

Chinese Abstract

本研究旨在探討幼稚園學生對道德問題的理解和處理方式,以及影響其道德判斷和行爲取向的各種心理因素,期望從而對幼兒的道德判斷力之發展取得更深入的理解和說明。 本研究採納紥根理論之質性研究進路,以18名(男女各9名)K1 至K3的幼兒爲研究對象,對他們進行兩次個別訪談及三至五次的分級觀察。研究者藉著對所得資料的編碼、分類和理論化,嘗試對幼兒的道德回應作出細緻而深入的描繪,並且對促進幼兒親社會道德判斷和行爲取向的心理因素作出歸納及分析。 在本研究中,所有幼兒均展現了對道德問題加以理解及回應的能力。他們所作的處理方法及所提供的理由豐富多樣,並能因應不同的情境脈絡而作出恰當的判斷和靈活的處理。研究者根據幼兒的回應和表現,區別出兩種道德行為傾向——較多親社會行爲表現與較不具親社會行為表現——的幼兒。從兩者的比較中發現,語言表達能力、同儕關係、社交能力、角色代入能力及自制能力皆爲影響幼兒所作道德判斷及行爲的重要心理因素。此外,研究也發現不同性別和年齡的幼兒表現出不同取向的道德判斷和行爲,例如年齡較大的幼兒較多利用語言幫助解決道德問題、較為顧全整體利益。唯本研究尙未能就幼兒的道德判斷力發展規律作出總括性的結論。 根據本研究的發現與結論,筆者對學校、教師及家長提供幼兒道德教育的相關建議,希望能有助強化幼兒的道德意識,增進幼兒的感受力和思考力,從而促進其道德判斷力的發展。 關鍵詞:道德判斷、道德發展、道德教育、幼稚園學生、紮根理論

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Faculty of Education




Moral education (Preschool)

道德教育 (學前)

Child psychology




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