UM E-Theses Collection (澳門大學電子學位論文庫)



English Abstract

It is a common practice to adapt westem models in developing theory and methodology of psychology and counselling for Chinese. However, cultural factors indubitably contribute to human behaviour and psychological constructs. The style of Chinese in coping with and adapting to psychological problems is different from the one of westermers. Therefore, western models cannot be employed directly and it is essential to develop a counselling model for Chinese with local attributes. In Chinese thousand years of culture, there has been aggregated spiritual wisdom in plenty, that is considered to be valuable asset for us to develop and enrich the study of counselling. In which, Lao-Tze of Taoism was with very special understandings of the vexations in life and the valuable methods of relief were provided. Therefore, in the present study, the philosophy of Lao-Tze has been employed as a base in an attempt to construct a counselling model for Chinese. The main concepts of the philosophy of Lao-Tze are: following the natural sequence without any manipulation, being contented and restricting desires, extracting all cognitive impediments and not being interfered by the improper desires, being strong is being soft, gentle and flexible, being inferior and not combating with others. Vexations in life mainly originate from the confused value system and the practice of concentrating on details rather than the main objectives. Finally the goal of life loses. On the other hand, after the nineteen century, people has been more seriously annoyed by the vexation of existence. However, the thought of Lao-Tze inspires us in encountering this problem as long as in the philosophical issue of settling one' life. The counselling model with the base of the philosophy of Lao-Tze emphasises that human nature is kind and with free will. Moreover, people can achieve high-level goals and value. The objectives of the counselling model include inducing self-understanding, removing the interference provoked by cleverness of scheming and desires, constructing the rational and harmonious relationship with the nature, the others and the self, and subsequently achieving the final goal of life. Similar to the westerns counselling models, empathy, genuineness, warm and unconditional positive regards are main factors ofthe counselling relationship of the present model. In the counselling process, besides of applying the techniques of reflection and clarification, as the personality of trait of Chinese is with an inclination of “collectiveness", information given is also recommended in order to enhance the clients to consider a personal issues in various aspects and thus insight would be more easily provoked. The present study is still in a preliminary status. Limitations and suggestions for further study are provided for reference.

Chinese Abstract

一直以來,心理學或心理輔導的理論和方法多移植西方的模式,至今仍開不出一套適合華人文化行為的輔導理念。問題是:文化因素會直接左右心理與行爲,華人的文化心理行為與西方有異,實不能將將西方學說生吞活剝,輔導模式的本土化實有必要。 中國文化源遠流長,心靈智慧累積十分豐富,足以充實、發展心理輔導學的内涵,其中道家的老子對人生困擾問題見解尤其精闢,提供了可貴的寬心之道;以老子哲學思想所構設一套輔導模式,更能適合華人文化圈的環境。 老子哲學的主要概念是:無爲自然、知足寡欲、致虛守靜、守柔曰強、居下不争。人生困擾的來源,主要是價値的誤置,逐末捨本,以致迷失人生之目標。另一方面,自十九世紀以來,人的存在的困擾更形嚴重,面對這些困惑,在安頓生命的大關節上,老子的思想具有方向性的啓導意義。 建基於老子思想的輔導模式,肯定人的本質具有善良的德性和自由意志,可以實踐高層次的理想和價値。輔導的目標,在協助當事人能了解自我,消除因偏見和欲望所造成的心障,重建與大自然、與人、與己的合理和諧的關係,理解生命的無尙意義。在輔導關係方面,與西方的模式同樣重視同理心、真誠、溫暖、無條件的接納。於方法上,除了使用反映、澄淸的技巧外,基於華人有「群我」意識的人格特徵,輔導員若能提供必要訊息,令當事人可以從不同的角度參透生命,破解種種心鎖和情結而達致領悟。 本研究尙屬初探階段,在文末提出這項研究的限制及進一步研究方向的建議,務求收抛磚引玉之效。

Issue date





Faculty of Education




Lao Tzu


Psychoanalytic counseling


Educational psychology


Taoist philosophy





Files In This Item

View the Table of Contents

View the Chinese Abstract

View the English Abstract

1/F Zone C
Library URL