UM E-Theses Collection (澳門大學電子學位論文庫)



English Abstract

The book, ANALECTS,records Confucius’ comments and behaviors when he lectured to his students. Most of the articles are the comments of proper life attitudes, learning, governmental administration and teaching. Therefore, it is an important work both aiming at exploring the educational administration thoughts of RU school, and serving as an essential tool for studying the Chinese educational history. The thesis intends to explore the thoughts of modern educational administration with the analysis of ANALECTS, which possesses potential academic research value. The thesis explores patterns by adopting the essential elements of ANALECTS respectively from the educational administration thoughts of RU school to general administration concepts, from the accomplishments of ancient Ieaders to the organization structure of contemporary educational administration and development plans. The thesis is roughly composed of four chapters. The first chapter comments on administration principles. The second chapter comments on administration environment. The third chapter comments on the leadership theories and the fourth chapter comments on administration tactics. The thesis is developed with theme statement and interpretation. There are also original quotations, confirmations of the arguments in the work, analysis of the theme thoughts pointing out the contradictions between the past and the present-day progress. It then finalizes with personal comments. As related to administration principles, the thesis quotes from the ANALECTS to state the foresight of RU school that ‘teaching & learning are prime'. The essential thing is that education is learner-oriented to run the administrations by adopting the management of humanism, respecting and activating the initiatives and self-consciousness of the masses, and gradually forming the three major educational administration characteristics of RU school of administration ‘with morality and conscience, civil foundation and talents employment’, of which talents and competence are the prime conditions for employment. Regarding to administration environment, the thesis comments on ‘Obedience Theories and Class Systems’, to illustrate how RU school opposed the surmount of higher class, appealing to all classes of the society to perform their respective duties. This thesis also comments on how ‘The Theory of Authority and Obligation’ was formed and practiced to help in maintaining the consistency between the authority, duties and job posts. Then what the name is fits what the fact is. In this way the confusion caused by the unclear boundary between authority and obligation of administration affairs and human resources would be reduced. Moreover, this thesis also comments on the centralizing of the core of power and authority with the strength of morality to establish a stable administration environment. As related to the theory of leadership, the thesis lists the pre-requisites of fundamental qualities to be qualified leaders from the viewpoint of the educational administration thoughts of RU school. These basic qualities include moral & cultured accomplishment and working styles. Confucius considered intelligence, mercy and bravery to be the elementary qualities for a qualified leader. On moral & conscious accomplishments, leaders should, first of all, possess the spirit of self-discipline. Leaders should be strict with themselves first and then strict with others, and set an example. On working styles, leaders should have lofty characters and wit to mobilize emergency resources. Leaders who have unselfishness, kindness, self-discipline and resourcefulness, can to shoulder grave responsibilities and tasks. As about educational administration tactics, RU school emphasized moderate implementation of administration tactics and required administrators to take serious considerations of specific elements of locations, personnel and matters when drafting measures and launching policies. RU school attached great importance to motivation so as to heighten the standard of accomplishments. It adopted active participation administration to promote the professional full display of the staff members, so as to perfect and stabilize the organization in harmony. Education itself is a means rather than an aim. Because of this the development of education administration can be promoted only by means of effective administrative power. RU school realized that educational administration is an integrated organization of people, objects and matters This integrated organization can produce the interchangeable effect and strength of human resources and material resources. This strength can overcome the barriers between ‘Superiors’ and ‘Subordinates'. This situation helps in influencing directly the ideas of the potential subordinates by attaching great importance to class system and the superiors’ personalities and conduct. Using the philosophy of treating others as you would like to be treated and the principle of working in harmony can promote the progress of society. This practice conforms with the three modern educational administration levels by Scott in 1992: Social-Psychological Level, Structural Level and Ecological Level. The thesis stresses the practical usage of modern science by taking the advantage of the ancient thoughts as the framework, with a view to forming brand-new educational administration system, which will provide a mirror to draw up educational development strategies in the days to come. Consequently, the strategies can be as effective as hitting nail on its end.

Chinese Abstract

《論語》一書,是孔門弟子對孔子言行的記載,其所記述,多爲孔子及其 弟子有關做人、求學、為政、施教的言論,所以《論語》除了是研究中國教育 史所必讀之作外,更是探求儒家教育管理思想的重要文獻。本文通過《論語》 來探討現代教育管理思想,是有高度學術研究價値的。 本文分別從《論語》中的儒家教育管理思想,引伸到一般管理思想,從古 代領導者的修養,轉化到近代教育行政組織結構和發展計畫,探索規律,擷究 精微。 本文大體列分四章。第一章論管理原則,第二章論管理環境,第三章論領 導原理,第四章論管理謀略。文章先從主題闡釋,跟著引用原文,確認文獻中 的論點,或剖析其中心思想,指出與時下的進展有矛盾之處,最後以個人的了 解作出評論。 有關管理原則,本文引述《論語》的說話,闡明儒家「教學爲先」的見解 ,主要是:治國必須施行以「人」爲中心的教育,樹立起「人本主義」的管理 方向,尊重群眾意見,發動群眾的積極性和自覺性,用人唯賢,用人唯才,形 成「德治、民本、畢賢才」的三大儒家教育管理特色。 有關管理環境,本文評述儒家的「順從理論」和「科層體制」,說明儒家 如何反對僭越犯上,要求社會各階層克盡其職份。如何提出「正名說」,以求 管理者的職位與權責相一致,名實相符,減輕權責不淸所引致的行政和人事混 。如何以道德力量來凝聚權威核心,造成穩定的管理環境等問題。 關於領導理論,本文列舉儒家教育管理思想對領導者基本素質的要求,包 括了品德修養和工作作風兩方面。孔子認爲領導者的基本素質是智、仁、勇。 在品德修養上,領導者要具備先「治己」後「治人」的自律精神,力求以身作 則。在工作作風上,領導者需要有「先之」、「毋我」、「知仁」、「律己」、「權變」的高尙品格和應變機智,才可膺重任。 有關教育管理謀略,儒家強調實施適度求中的管理策略,要求管理者須因 地、因人、因事而宜,更求因變制宜的措施,注重激勵作用以提升成就標準, 採取参與式管理以增進成員的專業成長,使組織在和諧氣氛中逐步健全、穩固。 教育本身是一種手段而不是目的,因此必須藉著管理的力量,才可促進教 育事業的發展。儒家認識到教育行政是社會系統中「人」、「物」、「事」的統合組織,透過它可以產生「人力」「物力」的交互作用,衝破「上級」「部屬」間的隔膜,所以特別注意科層體制和領導者的個人修養,以自己的行為直接影響被領導者的思想,推己及人,和諧共處,齊步前進,這與斯葛特(Scott,1992)所歸納現代教育行政組織的三大層次,即社會心理層次(Social Psychological Level)、結構層次(Structural Level)與生態曆次(Ecological Level)相吻合。本文的重點研究,以古代的思想爲體,現代的科學為用,體用呼應,形成新的教育管理機制,那麼今後教育發展策略的釐訂,更能針砭時弊,一矢中的了。

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Faculty of Education




Confucius. -- Lun Yu

孔子. -- 論語

Philosophy, Confucian


Confucianism and education




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